Sloka, the primary verse form of Sanskrit epics. The sloka has a fluid metre that lends itself easily to improvisation, with two verse lines (a distich) of 16 syllables each or four half lines (hemistichs) of 8 syllables each. Indo-Aryan literature is the body of texts in the Indo-Aryan language family.
It’s difficult to say when the Indo-Aryan dialects initially became distinct as languages. Around the 10th century CE, Sanskrit was still the language of high culture, serious writing, and ritual. At the start of the millennium, the languages today known as the regional languages of the subcontinent began to appear at various times throughout the next two or three centuries Hindi, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Sindhi (which did not develop an appreciable literature), and Assamese. Urdu did not develop until much later.
In their early stages, the literatures exhibit three characteristics: first, a debt to Sanskrit, which can be seen in their use of Sanskrit lexicon and imagery, their use of myth and story preserved in that refined language, and frequently in their conformity to ideals and values put forward in Sanskrit texts of poetics and philosophy; second, a less obvious debt to their immediate Apabhramsha past (dialects that are immediate predecessors of the modern Indo-A.
The narratives in the early stages of language development are mostly mythological tales borrowed from classical Hindu epics and Puranas. However, secular romances and heroic tales were also portrayed in narrative poems in the 17th and 18th centuries. Although the narratives’ themes are based on Purana tales, they frequently include components unique to the place in which the narrative was penned.
Regional literatures frequently adopted forms from Sanskrit, in addition to themes. The Ramayana, for example, appears in Tulsidas’ Ramcharitmanas (“Sacred Lake of Rama’s Acts”), a 16th-century Hindi rendition. This poem follows the same format as the Sanskrit poetry, but with a different emphasis. The stylized forms and imagery of Sanskrit court poetry occur as well, but with a different focus, in the work of the 15th-century Maithili (Eastern Hindi) lyric poet Vidyapati, for example. Even the sometimes enigmatic rhetorical musings of the Sanskritic poetic schools of analysis were used as formulas for the creation of 17th-century Hindi court poetry. Keshavadasa’s Rasikapriya (“Beloved of the Connoisseur”) is a good example of this type of tour de force.
Other traits are shared by regional literatures, some of which are derived from Apabhramsha rather than Sanskrit. Many northern Indian languages, for example, have two poetic forms: the barahmasa (“12 months”), in which 12 beauties of a girl or 12 attributes of a deity are extolled by relating them to the characteristics of each month of the year; and the chautis (“34”), in which the 34 consonants of the northern Indian Devanagari alphabet are used as the initial letters of a poem of 34 lines or stanzas, describing 34 joys.
Finally, there are certain shared traits that may have emerged from Apabhramsha or from the transmission of stories and texts from one language to another. Even in the early period, stories of Gopichandra, the cult figure of the Natha religious movement, a school of mendicant sannyasis, were known from Bengal to Punjab. And the original romance of the Rajput heroine Padmavati was eloquently portrayed with a Sufi (mystic) twist by 16th-century Hindi Muslim poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi and later by 17th-century Bengali Muslim poet Alaol.
Amit Madar was bathing in success after scoring 626/626 in the SSLC board exams with sweets, firecrackers, and a shower from the rain Gods. Madar was hailed by all, from panchayat members to education authorities, and was celebrated with garland, shawls, and sweets once the results were declared.
The 16-year-old from Jumanaala village in the Vijayapura district enrolled in the Government High School in his village with one goal in mind: to become a state topper. According to his eldest brother Kenchappa, Madar was inspired after seeing the school’s topper’s board and decided he wanted to be on that list.
“Madar is a quiet man. However, his work speaks volumes. We both talk in Sanskrit at home because I am getting a B.Ed in Sanskrit. He has memorised over 100 Sanskrit verses and believes it has improved his memory. He is also a yoga practitioner. This has substantially improved his academic performance,” adds Kenchappa, who assisted his brother by providing the majority of his educational resources. He was raised by a single mother after his father died seven years ago. In Vijayapura, his mother works as a labourer.
Madar, who is also a district-level volleyball player, won first place in a district-level Sanskrit competition. “I enjoy playing volleyball, but I lack the financial resources and facilities to continue.” I normally devote my complete attention to studies and study for 6-8 hours per day. I was very concerned about my Science grade because understanding this topic was difficult for me. “In the future, I’d like to study engineering or medicine,” Madar says. While concentrating on his studies, Madar helped out around the house by getting water, milk, and other necessities. His family also provided him with a private study space in which to study.
Amit Madar is a very bright and promising kid in both academics and extracurricular activities, according to C A Rudragoudar, retiring headmaster of the government high school in Jumanaala. “He hails from a very poor background,” Rudragoudar explained. However, he excels in both academics and extracurricular activities. He began practising for volleyball while he was in seventh grade. Mathematics is his favourite subject.”