Each year, more than 7 in 100,000 people receive a stomach cancer diagnosis, and 3 in 100,000 people pass away from the condition. At some time in their lives, about 0.8 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with stomach cancer. In the United States, 116,525 people had stomach cancer as of 2017.
Approximately 1.5% of all new cancer cases, or 27,600 new cases, are expected to be diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2020, according to the National Cancer Institute. Additionally, the NCI anticipates 11,010 stomach cancer deaths in 2020, or 1.8% of all cancer fatalities. It is critical to comprehend stomach cancer’s distinct characteristics and the conditions it can mimic because it affects men and women differently and can be challenging to diagnose. This page discusses the symptoms and signs of stomach cancer as well as the various disease stages, root causes, warning indicators, and treatment options.
What exactly is gastric cancer?
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, develops when healthy normal cells in the stomach lining are replaced by cancer cells that are developing. The oesophagus, the tube down which food passes after swallowing to reach the intestines, is directly below the stomach. One component of the digestive system that breaks down food and transports nutrients to the small intestine is the stomach.
It may take years for this type of cancer to manifest because it usually grows slowly. When previously healthy cells in the mucosa of the stomach lining start to proliferate out of control, stomach cancer frequently develops. The term “tumour” refers to this mass of malignant cells, which over time migrated into the stomach’s deeper layers.
What types of gastric cancer are there?
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is the name for a category of cancer. There are numerous varieties of stomach cancer:
Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent form of gastric cancer, accounting for more than 90% of all cases. stomach cancer that develops in the innermost layer of the lining.
Lymphoma: 4% of all stomach cancers, which do not originate from the stomach lining’s mucosa, are immune system cancers. It is divided into primary and secondary stomach lymphomas.
- Primary lymphoma concerns the stomach and may later impact the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and other body organs.
- Secondary lymphoma affects other bodily parts including the blood that is now flowing, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other organs at first. Cancer can also move to the stomach secondarily.
Gastrointestinal Stroma Tumor: a soft tissue tumour that can spread to the connective tissue of the stomach.
Neuroendocrine cancer: Neuroendocrine tumours, also called carcinoid tumours, develop from endocrine and nervous system cells in the intestine.
What are the various gastric cancer stages?
The intensity of the growth and dissemination of malignant cells determines the stage of stomach cancer. Initially, the tumour, node metastasis (TNM) system evaluates adenocarcinoma.
- T: How deeply has the tumor spread into the stomach wall?
- N: Has the stomach cancer spread to the lymph nodes?
- M: Has the stomach cancer spread to other parts of the body
The cancer is staged at 0 or 1 to 4 once the TNM staging data has been considered. The following are the tumour classifications for staging:
- Stage 0 is early cancer on the surface of the stomach lining.
- Stage 1A or 1B
- Stage 2A or 2B, commonly with deeper stomach wall involved
- Stage 3A or 3B or 3C, commonly with lymph node(s) involvement
- Stage 4 means cancer has metastasized elsewhere in the body outside of the stomach.
What principal factors give rise to gastric cancer?
Gastric cancer has multiple causes, and occasionally it develops with no identified risk factors. Stomach cancer risk can rise as a result of lifestyle decisions. On the other hand, those who have chronic stomach inflammation as a result of lifestyle choices or chronic illness are more at risk. The typical causes of stomach cancer frequently involve a past medical history that contains the following:
- H. pylori bacterial infections: A common stomach infection that often causes ulcers.
- Tumors: Other tumors occurring elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Stomach polyps: Abnormal tissue growth in the stomach lining.
- Stomach reflex (GERD)
You can alter your lifestyle to potentially lower your risk of gastric cancer. These consist of:
- Giving up smoking
- Maintaining a healthy diet and staying away from:
-Smoked meat or meal
-Added salt or salted foods
- Practicing physical activity
- Preparing and preserving food correctly
- Not abusing alcohol
- Being healthy in terms of weightThe following are risk factors for stomach cancer that you cannot change:
- Your age (50 years or older)
- Being male
- Being of Asian, South American or Belarusian descent
- Having a family history of stomach cancer
- Having a history of stomach surgery
- Having pernicious anemia, which is a vitamin deficiency that may be related to either lifestyle or disease